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A family-based cohort study that is embedded in the Genetic Research in Isolated Populations (GRIP) program in the South West of the Netherlands. The aim of this program was to identify genetic risk factors in the development of complex disorders. For the ERF study, 22 families that had at least five children baptized in the community church between 1850-1900 were identified with the help of genealogical records. All living descendants of these couples and their spouses were invited to take part in the study. Data collection started in June 2002 and was finished in February 2005 (n=2065).

The Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) provides a detailed picture of the health of the Scottish population in private households and is designed to make a major contribution to the monitoring of health in Scotland.
The series aims to:
• estimate the occurrence of particular health conditions
• estimate the prevalence of certain risk factors associated with health
• look at differences between regions and between subgroups of the population
• monitor trends in the population’s health over time
• make a major contribution to monitoring progress towards health targets

The Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) is a large-scale linkage study created using data from administrative and statistical sources. These include: census data from 1991 onwards; vital events data (births, deaths, marriages); NHS Central Register data (gives information on migration into or out of Scotland); and education data (including Schools Census and SQA data).

The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1,232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012).

This was possible because details were collected for all births in the country including duration of gestation, birthweight and birth length. Limache, a semirural agricultural area relatively near Santiago and close to Viña del Mar and Valparaíso, was chosen because: a birth register in the hospital has been kept since the 1970s; paediatric clinical records were kept in the local hospital ; and there was demographic information that emigration from this area was low so that we would be able to find most participants born in the 1970s still living in Limache and in Olmué, a neighbouring area.

The Whitehall II Study was established in 1985 to investigate the importance of socioeconomic circumstances for health by following a cohort of working men and women aged 35-55 at enrolment. Participants have taken part in twelve data collection phases, seven of which have included a medical screening. The aim of the study is to understand the causes of age-related heterogeneity in health.

By combining the existing 30 years of data on social circumstances, risk factors and chronic disease with new clinical measures of cognitive function, mental disorders and physical functioning, Whitehall II has been transformed interdisciplinary study of ageing. In addition to providing insights into individual and social differences in the development of frailty, disability, dependence, and dementia, the study helps in the determination of optimal time windows and targets for interventions that maximise the potential for healthy-ageing and independent living.

The aim of the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) project is to identify the neural mechanisms underpinning successful cognitive ageing. The study recruitment participants over 18 from resident within Cambridge City and used epidemiological, behavioural, and neuroimaging data to understand how individuals can best retain cognitive abilities into old age. A major aim of the research programme is to understand the nature of brain-cognition relationships across the lifespan, and to highlight the importance of abilities that are maintained into old age.

This population study was not designed to have repeated measures for each participant, but rather as one extended and comprehensive study visit that took place over 3 stages.

This is a feasibility study which has a Longitudinal Cohort design, following up participants at selected time points over a 1 year duration. The study will recruit 2 distinct groups: (1) patients with symptoms of cognitive impairment, and (2) study partners who are cognitively normal. The patients recruited to group 1 will have been recently referred to a Memory Assessment Service by their GP with suspected Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) & mild dementia. All patients referred to a Memory Assessment Service for this reason will be potentially eligible for inclusion in the study. Close friends or family members involved in looking after the cognitively impaired participants will also be asked to participate as study partners to attempt to measure the impact that looking after a partner, friend or family member with memory problems can have on a carer’s Quality of Life and other variables such as financial burden. Both cognitively impaired participants and their study partners will be given the option of additionally participating in two sub-studies:

– Mobile data collection: Using a web/mobile app to collect self-reported data on a more regular basis from home

– Wearable device: Using a wearable device that looks like a watch to collect information on activity and sleep

The Health Survey for England series was designed to monitor trends in the nation’s health, to estimate the proportion of people in England who have specified health conditions, and to estimate the prevalence of risk factors associated with these conditions. The surveys provide regular information that cannot be obtained from other sources on a range of aspects concerning the public’s health. The surveys have been carried out since 1994 by the Joint Health Surveys Unit of NatCen Social Research and the Research Department of Epidemiology and Public Health at UCL. Individuals are asked for written consent to link their HSE records to mortality and cancer registration data (from HSE 1994 onwards) and to Hospital Episodes Statistics (from HSE 2003 participants onwards).

Each survey in the series includes core questions and measurements (such as blood pressure, height and weight, and analysis of blood and saliva samples), as well as modules of questions on topics that vary from year to year. New topics in 2014 year included hearing and mental health. The achieved sample for the 2014 survey was 8,077 adults (aged 16 and over) and 2,003 children (aged 0-15).

i-Share (Internet-based Students HeAlth Research Enterprise) is a new open and prospective cohort on university students’ health. Participants are registered in the first years of study initially with the Universities of Bordeaux and Versailles-Saint-Quentin many many other French universities are now participating. Students are followed up with yearly assessments.

The study sets 2 main types of objectives:

1. Evaluate the frequency and impact of several diseases that may have immediate or short-term consequences on health and well-being (e.g. stress and depression, migraine, sexually transmitted infectious diseases, etc.).
2. Biomedical research objectives on the determinants of diseases. We have set up a cerebral MRI study and biobank on a sample of about 2000 participants including DNA and RNA.

The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) was designed to specify the usual and pathological aging of cognitive function. MAAS is devoted to the age-related decline of memory and other cognitive functions in normal people and the factors that may be involved in this process. What determines a decline in memory function? Why do some individuals show a greater decline than others? Over the past years, a host of factors, including biological, medical, psychological and social variables, have been proposed to have an impact on adult cognitive development. MAAS tries to study these factors in an integrative way. This can be achieved only by studying large numbers of normal healthy adults of all ages and by monitoring them for several years.