The LRRK2 Cohort Consortium (LCC) comprises three closed studies: the LRRK2 Cross-sectional Study, LRRK2 Longitudinal Study and the 23andMe Blood Collection Study. The LCC followed standardized data acquisition protocols, and clinical data and biological samples are stored in a comprehensive Parkinson’s database and biorepository, respectively. A total of 1,213 Idiopathic PD subjects, 1,168 PD subjects with genetic mutations in LRRK2, 1,123 unaffected subjects with genetic mutations in LRRK2, and 779 Healthy Controls (HC) were recruited.

The Parkinson’s Progression Marker Initiative (PPMI) is an observational, international study designed to establish biomarker defined cohorts and identify clinical, imaging, genetic and biospecimen Parkinson’s disease (PD) progression markers to accelerate disease modifying therapeutic trials. A total of 423 untreated PD, 196 Healthy Control (HC), 64 SWEDD (scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit) subjects, and 65 Prodromal subjects (individuals with hyposmia or REM Sleep Behavior Disorder) were enrolled. PPMI is actively enrolling affected and unaffected individuals with genetic mutations in LRRK2, GBA, or SNCA through the end of 2018. For the most up to date enrollment numbers, please visit To enroll PD subjects as early as possible following diagnosis, subjects were eligible with only asymmetric bradykinesia or tremor plus a dopamine transporter (DAT) binding deficit on SPECT imaging. Acquisition of data was standardized as detailed at

The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) Study was initiated in 1984 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) to assist in providing a better understanding of the
trends and determinants of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States (US). The study began by focusing on young adults ? persons 18 to 30 years of age at the time of the Year 0 (Y0) baseline
screening, undertaken between March 1985 and June 1986. A random selection of 5,115 black and white men and women identified by each of the four CARDIA field centres constituted the cohort.

Follow?up examinations at Y2, Y5, Y7, Y10, Y15, Y20, and Y25 achieved high retention, collected a rich set of high quality data and stored specimens bearing on the risk factors and possible causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Last Update 21/09/2017

The Norwegian ParkWest study is a prospective population-based longitudinal cohort study of patients with incident Parkinson’s Disease in Western and Southern Norway, with a total base population of more than 1 million inhabitants. The initial cohort comprised of 212 newly-diagnosed and drug-naïve individuals with suspected Parkinson’s disease, who were followed with standardized clinical examinations every 6 months. More comprehensive assessments, including neuropsychological and behavioural evaluations, were conducted at baseline and 1-year of follow-up, and at 2-year intervals thereafter. Currently, study participants are in the 10th year of follow-up. About 110 patients are still in the study.

Last update – 10/04/2017

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort with more than 521,000 study participants enrolled from 23 centres in 10 western European countries. Detailed information on diet, lifestyle characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and medical history was collected at recruitment (1992-1999).

Biological samples including plasma, serum, leukocytes, and erythrocytes were also collected at baseline from 387,889 individuals and are stored at the International Agency for Research on Cancer – World Health Organization (IARC-WHO) and mirrored at EPIC collaborating centres. Overall, the EPIC biorepositories host more than 9 million aliquots, constituting one of the largest biobanks in the world for biochemical and genetic investigations on cancer and other chronic diseases. Follow-up measures of lifestyle exposures have been collected and will be centralized at IARC in 2016.

Last update – 25/04/2017