The Swedish BioFINDER Study consists of four cohorts where patients are included prospectively and followed longitudinally ( At baseline, these individuals undergo detailed and standardized cognitive, neurological and psychiatric examinations. Plasma, blood, CSF and samples for cell biology studies are collected. Most also have also undergone advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and in many of the non-demented cases Amyloid and Tau positron emission tomography (PET) imaging have also been done.

The subcohorts include:
i) Healthy volunteers. Ca 350 volunteers aged 60-100 years old from the population-based Malm’ EPIC cohort (380 participants as of Feb 2016). Follow-up time: at least 8 years with investigations repeated every second year. In this cohort, appr. 20% is expected to have preclinical AD.
ii) Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD). Ca 500 patients with MCI/SCD aged 60-80 years. Follow-up time: at least 6 years with investigations repeated every year. In this cohort, appr. 50% is expected to have prodromal AD.
iii) Patients with different dementia disorders. We include ca 250 dementia cases aged 40-100 years with AD, VaD, DLB, PDD or FTD. Follow-up time: at least 2 years with investigations repeated every year.
IV) Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and PD-related disorders. Ca 300 patients with Parkinson-like symptoms. Follow-up time: at least 6 years with investigations repeated every year.

Last Update 21/09/2017

AIBL is a study of over 2,000 people assessed over a long period of time (over 10 years) to determine which biomarkers, cognitive characteristics, and health and lifestyle factors determine subsequent development of symptomatic Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).

The baseline inception cohort consisted of:
i. 211 individuals with AD as defined by NINCDS-ADRDA (McKhann et al, 1984);
ii. 133 individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
iii. 768 healthy individuals without cognitive impairment. This group included volunteers with at least one copy of the ApoE ?4 allele, volunteers without a copy of the ApoE ?4 allele and 396 volunteers who expressed subjective concern about their memory function.

The enrichment cohort consists of:
i. 142 individuals with AD
ii. 220 individuals with MCI
iii. 582 individuals with without cognitive impairment.

The data was collected through clinics and questionnaires.

Last Update 21/09/2017

The rpAD study is a longitudinal study, which recruits patients from the entire federal territory. In addition, patients from the Clinical Dementia Centre are recruited at the Neurological and Psychiatric Clinic of the University Medical Center of G’ttingen, with these usually classical clinical forms being internal controls. The aim of the study is to characterize the biological factors and parameters that define the disease progression in AD.

After the patient is informed and consent is given, the inclusion examination is carried out. It includes a detailed history and anamnesis as well as a physical examination, which includes an in-depth examination of the neurological status. A neuropsychological test for cognitive testing is performed using the CERAD-plus test battery. Furthermore, the GDS score is obtained, which allows an assessment of the severity of the cognitive deficits by means of a 7-stage classification. The ADL score is used to assess the activities of daily life (Lawton and Brody 1969).

Six months after the initial examination, a telephone follow-up is carried out. Further investigations are carried out on an annual basis and correspond to the initial examination.

Last Update 21/09/2017

The Norwegian ParkWest study is a prospective population-based longitudinal cohort study of patients with incident Parkinson’s Disease in Western and Southern Norway, with a total base population of more than 1 million inhabitants. The initial cohort comprised of 212 newly-diagnosed and drug-naïve individuals with suspected Parkinson’s disease, who were followed with standardized clinical examinations every 6 months. More comprehensive assessments, including neuropsychological and behavioural evaluations, were conducted at baseline and 1-year of follow-up, and at 2-year intervals thereafter. Currently, study participants are in the 10th year of follow-up. About 110 patients are still in the study.

Last update – 10/04/2017

The key goal of EUROSCA-NHS is to determine and compare the rate of disease progression in SCA1, SCA2, SCA3 and SCA6. To this end, a newly developed and validated ataxia scale (Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia, SARA) will be used. EUROSCA-NHS has a number of secondary aims including determination of the order and occurrence of non-ataxia symptoms, assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QoL), and identification of predictors of disease progression and survival.

Patients are first seen at a baseline visit, followed by annual visits for 3 years scheduled ᄆ 3 months around the specified time point. After the initial 3 year observation period, visits are done at irregular intervals each time they went to hospital.

Last update – 12/08/2017

TRACK-HD was a prospective observational biomarker study in participants with premanifest and early Huntington’s disease (HD). Track-HD assessed longitudinal data collected at baseline, 12 months, 24 and 36 months at sites in Leiden (Netherlands), London (UK), Paris (France), and Vancouver (Canada). Participants were individuals without HD but carrying the mutant HTT gene (ie, premanifest HD), patients with early HD, and healthy control individuals matched by age and sex to the combined HD groups. Data were collected with 3T MRI, clinical, cognitive, quantitative motor, oculomotor, and neuropsychiatric assessments. TrackOn-HD followed on from TRACK-HD aiming to investigate compensatory mechanisms in premanifest gene carriers. Baseline, 12 and 24 month data was collected from the same four sites on premanifest gene carriers and healthy controls including 3T MRI, task and resting state fMRI, DTI, clinical, cognitive, quantitative motor and neuropsychiatric assessments.

Last update – 11/04/2017

ADNI began in October 2004. The overall goal is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease clinical trials. One aim is to find, validate and standardize more sensitive and accurate methods to detect Alzheimer’s disease at earlier stages and mark its progress through biomarkers. The study gathered and analyzed thousands of brain scans, genetic profiles, and biomarkers in blood and cerebrospinal fluid that are used to measure the progress of disease or the effects of treatment. More information on All data is publically available at USC/LONI/ADNI.

The three overarching longitudinal ADNI study goals are:

  • Validation of biomarkers, especially for amyloid and tau, for use in AD clinical trials.
  • To detect Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at the earliest stage possible and identify ways to track the disease through biomarkers.
  • To support advances in AD intervention, prevention and treatment through the application of new diagnostic methods to apply at the earliest stages technically possible – when intervention may be most effective.
  • To continually develop ADNI’s now- legendary data access policy and continuously improve and expand the unprecedented data sharing model.

Last update – 07/02/2017

The AMPLE study has been set up to investigate differences and outcomes in those with Lewy body dementia with and without concurrent Alzheimer’s disease/pathology. The principle aim of AMPLE is to undertake amyloid PET imaging in Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) of 80 participants over the age of 60 and investigate the distribution of amyloid burden in LBD relative to AD and controls at baseline. A further aim is to determine the relationship between amyloid levels at baseline, clinical features of the disease, other imaging changes and subsequent clinical course in follow up.

Primary analysis would divide LBD patients into high and low amyloid burden with participants then compared on clinical features with AD-like symptoms and cognitive profiles. Follow up will be completed annually through surveys and clinical examinations.

Last update – 01/02/2017

The NIMROD (Neuroimaging of Inflammation in Memory and Other Disorders) study aims to understand the role of inflammation in several forms of dementia, memory loss and depression (Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), late life depression (LLD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI)). It also aims to understand the changes in the immune system, from immune cells and other components in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

To achieve this, NIMROD looks at brain changes in dementia, depression and related disorders in several different ways, detecting differences in brain structure and function, measuring inflammation and annual psychology and memory assessments. A further aim is to investigate if neuroinflammation can predict subsequent clinical course, including cognitive and functional decline.

Last update – 01/02/2017

The PICNICS study is an observational study tracking the progression of patients with incident Parkinson’s disease over several years to better understand how the disease behaves over time, and establish the pattern of evolution of subtypes of Parkinson’s disease. Understanding differences between subtypes and what drives them will inform development of stratified therapies. The study recruited patients with Parkinson’s disease between 2008 and 2013, and is following them up every 18 months with clinical assessments, cognitive assessments and biological sampling.

Last update – 16/01/2017